Innovate to create a product capable of entering a new market and destabilizing the competition that previously dominated the stage. This is the basic concept of disruptive innovationcreated by Clayton Christensen, Professor at Harvard Business School.
But how do you explain the theory? By introducing something new, cheaper and more efficient, a certain brand creates a kind of revolution, captures a piece of the market and outperforms the competition through innovation. Whether it’s a product or a service, the most important thing is to break the market.
Learn more about the history of the concept
That concept of disruptive innovation was developed by Clayton Christensen based on the ideas of Joseph Schumpeter. At the end of the 1930s, the Austrian invented the expression “creative destruction” to explain the established economic cycle.
According to Schumpeter, capitalism is represented in Cycles, and each new revolution, whether technological or industrial, destroys the previous one and establishes itself as a regulator of the market. The first time Christiensen used the term was in a 1990 article entitled The innovator’s dilemma.
Although one can see that the theory of disruptive innovation produces results in the market place, there are authors who argue about it. one of the most important criticism It’s by Jill Lepore, a writer for The New Yorker magazine.
In an article published in 2014, Lepore states that Christensen built his theory only with examples that confirmed his hypothesis. In Forbes, the same year, Craig Hatkoff and Rabi Irwin Kula, co-founders of the Disruptor Foundation, they blamed Lepore that disruptive innovation is not a theory that speaks of failure, but of change.
Examples of disruptive innovations
Although the concept is relative New, it is possible to apply it at different times in human history. Without any commercial or business bias, examples like this help to understand the meaning of innovation to replace and create new technologies, which promotes development.
The emergence of the steamship as a replacement for the sailing ship can be cited as an example of disruptive innovation. Another case is paper replacing parchment, which was more expensive relative to what was new at the time. The creation of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in the second half of the 19th century helped replace the telegraph.
Disruptive innovation is also present in many other moments 21st century. There are several examples of creations that have broken through market barriers. Wikipedia is gradually replacing traditional encyclopedias; Companies like Netflix are replacing video rentals, and apps like Easy Taxi can put an end to traditional radio taxis.